HANDBOOK OF CANE SUGAR ENGINEERING (Sugar series 7)edisi 1986
E. HUGOT TRANSLATED BY G.H. JENKINGS. REVISI
Additional Author
mixed material
bibliography
Amsterdam
Elsevier
1986
monographic
3
en
English
1166 p; 23 cm, subject index, tabel
sugar series 7
Chapter 1. Delivery, unloading and handling of cane,
Organisation of cane supply throughout the day, 1
Unloading of cane, 3
Cane-handling equipment, 6
Lateral feeding tables and carriers, 1$ References, 20
Chapter 2. The cane carrier, 21
Chapter 3. Cane knives, 32 References, 48
Chapter 4. Tramp-iron separators, 49 Chapter 5. Crushers, 51
Object, 51
2-roller crushers, 51
Value of 2-roller crusher, 56 3-roller crusher, 56
Extraction of a crusher, 59
Large 3-roller crusher,
59 References, 59
Chapter 6. Shredders, 60
Object, 60
Location, 60
Function of the shredder, 60
Searby-type pulverisFr, 63
Bulk density of cal e prepared by shredder,
70 Total power for cane preparation, 70 References, 72
Chapter 7. Combinations of cane preparators, 73
Chapter 8. Feeding of mills and conveying of bagasse, 74
Feed plate to crusher, 74
Feed hopper between crusher and first mill,
75 Intermediate carriers, 76
Delivery plate at last mill,
85 Feeding arrangements, 85
Bagasse conveyors, 98
Coefficient of friction for cane and bagasse, 99 References, 100
Chapter 9. Roller grooving, 101
Object, 101
Circumferential grooves, 101
Messchaert grooves, 107 Chevrons, 111
Kay grooving, 113 Wear of rollers, 113 References, 116
Chapter 10. Pressures in milling, 117
Hydraulic pressure, 117
Pressure considered from the operating viewpoint, 125
Pressures in mills, 130
Nomenclature, 175 Reference. 176
Chapter 11. Mill speeds, 178
Linear speed and 'speed of rotation, 178
Maximal speeds employed, 180 Speeds in general practice, 181 References, 185
Chapter 12. Mill capacity, 186
Definition, 186
Factors influencing capacity, 186 Capacity formulae proposed, 188
Capacity formulae, 188
Relation of capacity of fibre loading, 195
Tonnage records, 197 References, 19
:hapter 32. Evaporation, 494
General, 494
Multiple-effect evaporation, 504 Principle of multiple effects, 504
Construction of multiple effects, 506
Circulation of steam and vapour, 514 Condensates, 516
Incondensable gases, 525 Juice circulation, 529
Entrainment, 538
Inversion losses, 541
Heat losses, 543
Incrustations, 545
Operation in parallel, 553 Vapour bleeding, 554
Vapour recompression, 555
Operation of multiple effects, 561
Heating surface, 570
Calculations and design of a multiple effect, 579
Multiple-effect calculations, 588 Evaporator operation, 608
Special multiple effects, 612 Evaporation under pressure, 615
Falling-film evaporators, 617 References, 624
CHapter 33. Sugar boiling, 627
Vacuum pans, 635
Effects of hydrostatic pressure, 647
Massecuite circulation in vacuum pans, 649
Evaporation coefficient, 662
Heating steam, 663
Steam consumption at the pan stage, 664
Heating surface and ratio of heating surface to volume, 667
Height of massecuite, circulation, heating surface and graining volume, 668
Capacity of pans, 669
Sugar-boiling procedures, 670
Molasses, 677
Conduct of the sugar boiling, 681
Central and individual vacuum, 685
Instruments for pan control (G.H.J.), 686
Other factors, 691
Pans with mechanical circulation, 707
Defecation procedures, 401 Reaction of defecated juice, 404
pH control, 404 Elimination of starch, 404
Other reagents used, 405 References, 406
Chapter 25. Sulphitation, 407 References, 414
Chapter 26. Clarification with phosphoric acid, 415 References, 416
Chapter 27. Carbonatation, 417 References, 427
Chapter 28. Use of magnesia in clarification, 429 References, 430
Chapter 29. Subsidation, 431
Clarifiers or subsiders, 432 References, 447
Chapter 30. Juice heating, 448
Calculations for heaters, 449 Design of a battery of heaters, 457
Construction of heaters, 462 References, 468
Chapter 31,. Filtration, 469
Conditions for good filtration, 469
Types of filter, 469 Filter presses, 469
Continuous rotary vacuum filters, 476
Accessories for continuous rotary filters, 487
Filtration of syrups, 492 References, 492
General considerations, 304
Methods of application of imbibition, 311 References, 214
hapter 20. Extraction, 315
Measure of efficiency of milling work, 315 Factors in efficiency of mills, 321 Sanitation at the mills, 326
References, 327
hapter 21. Milling control, 328
Extraction by dry crushing, 328 Brix graphs, 331
Basic equation for mill control, 333
Brix of absolute juice, 335 Fibre, 336
Various relationships in milling, 337
Sucrose extracted % cane, 341
Determination of the value of the coefficient k, 347
Normal values of efficiency coefficient k, 348
Use of the coefficient, 348 Special use for factory control, 348 References, 350
Chapter 22. Fine-bagasse separators, 352 References, 358
Chapter 23. Diffusion, 359
Brief historical note, 359 Limitations of mills, 359 Diffusion, 360
Diffusion and lixiviation, 365 _
Batch diffusion and continuous diffusion, 366
Cane diffusion and bagasse diffusion, 367 Types of diffusion, 369
General considerations on diffusion, 396
Choice of miils or diffusion, 398, References, 398
Chapter 24. Defecation, 399
Clarification of juices, 399 Action of lime on the juice, 399
s
Chapter 13. Mill settings, 199
Object, 199
A. Feed and delivery openings, 200
Measure of the openings, 200 Java method, 201
Method of calculating operating openings, 206
Delivery openings and fibre loading, 212
Effect of inclined housings, 214 Settings empty and openings in operation, 216
B. Trashplate, 217 References, 226
Chapter 14., Power requirements of mills, 227
Factors influencing power requirements, 227
General formula for power consumption of mills, 229 General relationships, 235
References, 239
Chapter 15. Electric drive of mills; 241
Systems of electric drive for mills, 244 References, 248
Chapter 16. Mill drive by steam turbine, 249
Turbines for mill drive, 250 Chapter 17. Mill gearing, 253
Speed reduction, 253 Drive to the rollers, 256 References, 258
Chapter 18. Construction of mills, 259
Housings, 259 Rollers, 266 References, 279
Chapter 19. Imbibition, 280
Object, 280
Different systems of imbibition, 280
Mathematical study of imbibition, 281
Relative weights of bagasse and juice, 297
Material balance of the tandem, 299
Continuous vacuum pans, 712 References, 721
Chapter 34. Crystallisation, 724
Types of crystalliser, 734 References, 756
Chapter 35. Centrifugal separation, 757
Batch centrifugals, 757
Electric drive, 779
Operation of centrifugals, 790 Continuous centrifugals, 794
Accessory processes and equipment, 807 References, 816
Chapter 36. Storage and drying of sugar, 817
Sugar stores, 818 References, 830
Chapter 37. Sugar, 832
References, 835 Chapter 38. Molasses, 836
References, 837
Chapter 39. Boiling-house control, 838
References, 851
Chapter 40. Vacuum equipment, 852
Vacuum systems, 853
The condenser, 855
Weight of vapour to be condensed, 861
Weight of cooling water, 864 Air pumps, 868
Rotary liquid-annulus air pumps, 870 The barometric column, 880
Water pumps, 883
Spray ponds, 885
Rain type condensers, 894 Condenser-heaters, 894
Jet condensers, 897
Steam-jet ejector condensers, 901 References, 905
Chapter 41. Steam production and usage, 906
Steam, 906
Bagasse 911
Combustion cf bagasse, 924 Fuels other than bagasse, 940 Furnaces, 942
The grate, 952
Performance of different furnaces, 956 Heating surface, 958
Superheat and superheaters, 960 Economisers, 965
Air-heaters, 972
Choice between economiser and air-heater, 980 Drying of bagasse, 984
Boiler settings, 988 Draught, 989
Fans, 993
Boiler feed water, 995
Steam accumulators, 1000 Steam-reducing valves, 1003
De-superheating, 1004 Types of boiler, 1006 Construction of boilers, 1009
Maintenance of boilers, 1012 Steam balance, 1012
Maximum economy - power for external uses, 1016
Sale of power by the sugar factory, 1023
General arrangement of the steam cycle, 1029 References, 1031
Steam tables, 1035
hapter 42. Steam turbines, 1047
Concise theory of the steam turbine, 1047
Impulse turbines and reaction turbines, 1050
Specifications for a turbine, 1065 References, 1071
hapter 43. Electricity, 1072
Direct current and alternating current, 1072
Three-phase alternating current, 1072
Generation of electricity, 1075 Alternators, 1079
Electric motors, 1082 Conductors, 1097 Power house, 1100 References, 1101
Chapter 44. Pumps, 1102
Centrifugal pumps, 1102 Rotary pumps, 1108
Screw pumps, 1113 References, 1114
Chapter 45. Piping and fluid flow, 1115
General formulae, 1115
Flow of steam and gases, 1123 References, 1125
Chapter 46. Automation and data processing (by G. Windal and J.C. Giorgi), 1126
A historical example: operation of sugar boiling, 1126
Modern concepts of automation, 1131
A structure of automation, 1134
An example of technical management, 1140
Management and control of production processes, 1143
Conversion tables - metric to British units, 1147
Conversion tables-British to metric units, 1149 Equivalents of foreign, British and metric units, 1153
Subject index, 1155
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