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Judul UNIT OPERATIONS IN CANE SUGAR PRODUCTION (sugar series 4)
Edisi
No. Panggil 664.122 Pay u
ISBN/ISSN 044442141
Pengarang JOHN HOWARD PAYNE.
Subyek/Subjek gula
cane sugar
Klasifikasi 664.122
Judul Seri sugar series 4
GMD Text
Bahasa English
Penerbit elseiver publishing company
Tahun Terbit 1982
Tempat Terbit New York
Kolasi xiii, 203 p; 25 cm,
Catatan cane cleaning,milling,diffusion,bagasse moisture,the impact of extraneous matter on milling-diffusion,a comparison of diffusion and milling with respect to recovery and losses, clarification,evaporations,commercialsugar crytalization,low grade sugar crystalization,centrifugation,final molasses,recovery actorssugar quality,sugar and molasses handling,steam generation,use of steam,instrumantation,equipment maintenance,cane,regional variation,engineering specifications
Detil Spesifik rak 12 (2) Chapter 1. FACTORY CONTROL . Procedures, 1 Schedule for measuring, sampling and analysis, 9 Daily report form, 12 Weekly report form, 13 Recovery and loss form, 14 Chapter 2. CANE CLEANING . Thinning, 15 Rock, gravel and sand removal, 15 Schematic diagram, 16 Washing, 17 Fibrous trash removal, 17 Operation, 18 Cane salvager, 18 Efficiency of cleaning, 18 Water reuse, 20 Waste disposal, 20 Losses, 20 References, 21 Chapter 3. MILLING Cane preparation, 24 Two-roll crushers, 24 Mills, 25 Feeding devices, 25 overfeed roll, 25; underfeed roll, 25; pressure feeder, 26; two-roll feeder, 26 Grooving, 26 circumferential grooves, 26; juice (Messchaert) grooves, 27; chevron grooves, 27 Operation, 27 mill settings, 28; maceration, 30; hydraulic loading, 31; speed, 31; general effects, 31 Control, 32 juice density curves, 32; mill juice curve, graph, 33 References, 34 Chapter 4. DIFFUSION 35 Introduction, 35 Cane preparation, 35 Juice displacement, 36 Silver Ring Diffuser, 36; diagram, Silver Ring Diffuser, 37; diffuser gradients, graph, 38 Bagasse dewatering, 39 Press juice treatment, 39 Press juice percolation, graph, 40 Operation, 41 permeability bed depth and diffuser speed, 41; diffuser flow balance, graph, 42; cell rupture, 43; draft and dilution, 43; press return, 43; juice flow percent fiber, diagram, 44; temperature, 45; bagasse dewatering, 45 Diffuser flooding, 45 Control, 46 References, 47 Chapter 5. BAGASSE MOISTURE 49 Effect on extraction, 50 53 Effect on fuel value, 51 Chapter 6. THE IMPACT OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER ON MILLING AND DIFFUSION lIilling, 54 59 Diffusion, 56 Chapter 7. A COMPARISON OF DIFFUSION AND MILLING WITH RESPECT TO RECOVERY AND LOSSES . . . - hapter 8. CLARIFICATION 61 Polyelectrolytes, 61 Magnesium oxide, 62 Phosphatation, 62 Sulfitation, 63 Juice heaters, 63 Rotary vacuum filters, 64 bagasse fines, 64; filter station, diagram, 65; operating action diagram, 66; mixing fines with settlings, 67; pickup vacuum, 67; wash vacuum, 67; washing, 67; speed, 67; cake pol, 68; cake quantity, 68 Clarifiers, 68 flashing, 68; settling space, 69; operation of multi- compartment clarifiers, 69; holdover juice, 69; clarified juice screening, 70 References, 70 Chapter 9. EVAPORATION 71 Multiple effects, 71 Vapor bleeding, 72 Capacity, 73 Operation, 73 . automatic control, 74; condenser and vacuum system, 74; condensate removal, 75; noncondensible gas, 75; scaling, 75; entrainment, 76; malfunctions, 77 Evaporator calculations, 77 References, 80 Chapter 10 COMMERCIAL SUGAR CRYSTALLIZATION . . Vacuum pan crystallization, 81 A-massecuite, 81; purity refractometer solids saturation diagram, 82; purity refractometer solids 1.2 supersaturation diagram, 83; purity refractometer solids boiling point, 1.3 supersaturation, nomograph, 84; B-massecuite, 86; crystal content and pan drops, 86; vacuum pan design, 87; procedures, 88; quantity of massecuites, 89 References, 93 Chapter 11. LOW GRADE SUGAR CRYSTALLIZATION . . . Crystallization by cooling, 95 viscosity-temperature relations, saturated molasses, graph, 96; crystallizer design, 96; operation, 97; continuous crystallizer flow diagram, 99 Vacuum pan crystallization, 98 molasses refractometer solids at 1.2 supersaturation table, 101; vacuum pan design, 102; procedures, 102 References, 103 Chapter 12. GENERALIZATIONS AND DATA ON SUCROSE CRYSTALLIZATION Generalizations, 105 temperature, 105; supersaturation, 105; viscosity, 105; purity, 106; recirculation of final molasses, 106; low grade seeding, 106; seedslurry, 106; crystal yield, 106; exhaustion, 106 Data, 107 single crystal measurements, 107; crystal growth rate, table, 107, effect of purity on crystallization rate, figure, 108; variables governing molasses exhaustion, figure, 109; 3-massecuite, 1-high pol sugar boiling system, figure 110 References, 111 Chapter 13. CENTRIFUGATION Batch machines, 113 commercial sugar, 113; low grade sugar, 114 Continuous machines, 115 commercial sugar, 115; low grade sugar, 115 Operation, 115 batch machines, commercial sugar, 115; batch machines, low grade sugar, 116; continuous machines, low grade sugar, 116 Chapter 14. FINAL MOLASSES . . 117 References, 120 Chapter 15. RECOVERY FACTORS . . . 121 96 DA Sugar Recovery % Pol in Syrup, table, 122 Molasses % Pol in Syrup, table, 123 Molasses % 96 DA sugar, table, 124 Chapter 16. SUGAR QUALITY . 127 Pol, 127 Crystal size and uniformity, 128 Color, 128 crystal, 128; whole sugar, 129 Filterability, 130 Moisture, 130 Ash, 131 Chapter 17. SUGAR AND MOLASSES HANDLING. . 133 Sugar, 133 137 Molasses, 134 Chapter 18. STEAM GENERATION Boiler design, 137 Control, 137 boiler efficiency, 137 Boiler water, 140 boiler water treatment, 141 Operation, 142 bagasse, 142; air supply, 142; boiler water, 143; oil firing, 143; stack emission, 143 Bagasse drying, 143 Fibrous trash fuel, 144 References, 145 Chapter 19. USE OF STEAM Steam pressures, 147 Steam balance, 148 Process steam requirements, 148 evaporation, 148; juice heating, 149; sugar boiling, 150; total process steam required, 150 Power relations of steam, 150 Operation, 151 References, 152 Chapter 20. INSTRUMENTATION Indicating instruments, 153 temperature, 153; pressurW '154; flow, 154; level, 155; specific purpose instruments, 156 Controllers, 157 Operation, 158 Chapter 21. EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE Guidelines for maintenance scheduling, 160 conveyors, 160; knives, 160; shredder, 160; mills, 161; diffuser system, 161; boilers, 162; turbines, 162; generators, 163; electric motors, 163; gear reducers, 164; scales, 164; heaters, 164; clarifiers, 164; filters, 165; pans, 165; centrifugals, 165; crystallizers, 166; pumps, 166; tanks, 167; piping, 167; valves, 167; fans, 167; instruments, 167 Chapter 22. GENERAL RULES OF THUMB FOR APPRAISING FACTORY OPERATIONS AND OPERATIONAL TARGETS General rules of thumb for appraising factory operations, lh~ cane, 169; tops, 169; fibrous trash, 169; bagasse, 169; mixed juice, 169; filter cake, 170; syrup, 170; massecuites, 170: low grade sugar, 170; sugar, 170; final molasses, 170 Operational targets, 170 cane preparation, 170; imbibition, 170; bagasse, 171; last expressed juice, 171; filter cake, 171; syrup, 171; massecuites, 171; sugar, 171; final molasses, 171; undetermined loss, 171 Chapter 23. CANE Structure 173 Cross section drawing, 174 Juice, 175 Fiber, 176 Varieties, 176 References, 176 Chapter 24. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN SUGAR CANE PROCESSING Control, 177 Milling, 178 Diffusion, 178 Clarification, 179 Sugar boiling, 179 Steam generation and utilization, 180 Manpower, 181 Chapter 25. ENGINEERING SPECIFICATIONS Vessels, 183 non-pressure tanks, 183; pressure vessels, 183; juice heaters, 183; evaporators, 184; vacuum pans, 184 Piping, 184 Valves, 185 gate valves, 185; butterfly valves, 185; diaphragm valves, 185; globe valves, 185; check valves, 186; pressure reducing valves, 186; control valves, 186 Pumps, 186 Electrical, 186 motors, 186; low voltage switchgear, 186 Gears, 187 Turbines, 187 Boilers, 187
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